Red Location is the oldest surviving relocation site in Port Elizabeth, where thousands of native Africans were forced to settle by the colonial government in the early 1900s. It is one of South Africa's original centers of antiapartheid activism, as well as a cradle of culture in the Eastern Cape; one of its townships, New Brighton, is the home of the Serpent Players (made famous by playwrights Athol Fugard, John Kani, and Winston Ntshona), as well as artists such as George Pemba, and many jazz musicians.
The Red Location Cultural Precinct, in New Brighton, honors the turbulent history of the area, while providing the surrounding community with opportunities for education, employment, and artistic expression. The first phase of the project, the Museum of Struggle, opened in November 2006 with exhibits on the contemporary history of South Africa, particularly the resistance against apartheid. Noero Wolff Architects, the Cape Town–based practice, designed the entire complex after winning a national competition in 1998.